The climate of Kosovo is predominantly continental, resulting in warm summers and cold winters with Mediterranean and Alpine influences (average temperature within the country range from +30 °C (summer) to –10 °C (winter)). However, due to unequal elevations in certain parts of the country, there are differences in temperature and rainfall distribution.
December and January are regarded as the coldest months, July and August as the warmest months of the year. The maximum rainfall rate is reached between October and December. Between November and March, snowfall can be expected in Kosovo, even in the flat parts of the country. The highest snowfall rates can be expected in the mountain regions of Kosovo.
The valley between Mitrovicë/Mitrovica and Kaçanik/Kačanik belongs to the dryer areas of the country. In contrast, the plain of Dukagjini between Pejë/Peć and Prizren is described as a very fertile area with more precipitation between November and March.
Based on the climate conditions, Kosovo can be separated into three climatic areas:
- Climatic Area of Kosovo (Rrafshi i Kosovës),
- Climatic Area of Dukagjini (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit) and
- Climatic Area of mountains and forest parts.
The climatic area of Kosovo (Rrafshi i Kosovës), which includes the Ibar-Valley, is influenced by continental air masses. For this reason, in this part of the country, the winters are colder with medium temperatures above –10 °C, but sometimes down to –26 °C. The summers are very hot with average temperatures of 20 °C, sometimes up to 37 °C. This area is characterised by a dry climate and a total annual precipitation of 600 mm per year, approximately.
The climatic area of Dukagjini (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit), which includes the watershed of the Drini i Bardh river, is influenced very much by the hot air masses, which cross the Adriatic Sea. Medium temperatures during winter range from 0.5 °C to sometimes 22.8 °C. The average annual precipitation of this climatic area is about 700 mm per year. The winter is characterised by heavy snowfalls.
The climatic area of the mountains and forest parts is characterised by a typical forest clime, that is associated with heavy rainfalls (900 to 1,300 mm per year), and summers that are very short and cold, and winters that are cold and with a lot of snow.
Finally, it can be stated that the Kosovo territory is characterised by a sunny climate with variable temperature and humidity conditions.